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Turkey in Brief








Background of Turkey Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his  leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
Famous Landmarks of Turkey

UNESCO Award Winning Ankara Anatolian Civilisations Museum, Ayasofya Museum (Hagia Sophia), Topkapi Palace Museum (Topkapi Sarayi), Blue Mosque, Selimiye Mosque, Dolmabahçe Palace, Ancient City of Troy, Ephesus (Efes), Aphrodisias, Pergamum (Bergama), Pamukkale, Göreme-Cappadocia, Mt. Nemrut, Mt. Ararat, Ancient City of Çatalhöyük, Ancient City of Acemhöyük, Safranbolu

Geography of Turkey

Location of Turkey Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Coordinates of Turkey 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references of Turkey Middle East
Area of Turkey total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
Boundaries of Turkey total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline of Turkey
8333 Km.
Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides:
By the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean in the south and the Aegean Sea in the west.
In the northwest there is also an important internal sea, the Sea of Marmara, between the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus 
Regions of Turkey Turkey has 80 administrative provinces and seven geographical regions. The first four of the seven regions are given the names of the seas which are adjacent to them.
- Black Sea Region
- Marmara Region
- Aegean Region
- Mediterranean Region

The other three regions are named in accordance with their location in the whole of Anatolia.
- Central Anatolia Region
- Eastern Anatolia Region
- South-Eastern Anatolia Region

Maritime claims of Turkey territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climate of Turkey temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Marmara, Aegean, and Mediterranean coasts: These coasts have a typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. The swimming season becomes shorter as one goes to the further north: Marmara and North Aegean - June to September; South Aegean and Mediterranean - April to October.

Black Sea Coast: Warm summers, mild winters, and relatively high rainfall.
Central Anatolia: Steppe climate with hot, dry summers; cold winters.
Eastern Anatolia: Long snowy cold winters with mild summers.
Southeast Anatolia: Hot summer with mild, rainy winters.

Turkish Terrain high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation of Turkey lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural Resources of Turkey coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use in Turkey arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)
Irrigated land in Turkey 42,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards in Turkey severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment issues of Turkey water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Note strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

Turkish People

Population of Turkey 70,413,958 (July 2006 est.)
Turkish Age structure 0-14 years: 25.5% (male 9,133,226/female 8,800,070)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 24,218,277/female 23,456,761)
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 2,198,073/female 2,607,551) (2006 est.)
Turkish Median age total: 28.1 years
male: 27.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2006 est.)
Turkish Growth rate 1.06% (2006 est.)
Birth rate in Turkey 16.62 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate in TUrkey 5.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Migration rate in Turkey 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio in Turkey at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate in Turkey total: 39.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.27 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth in Turkey total population: 72.62 years
male: 70.18 years
female: 75.18 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate in Turkey 1.92 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% - note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Nationality noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Beliefs in Turkey A modern secular state respecting religious practices.
Language Turkish (Adopts Latin Alphabet)
Literacy rate in Turkey definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.5%
male: 94.3%
female: 78.7% (2003 est.)
Wear in Turkey Marmara, Aegean, and Mediterranean coasts: Light, cotton summer clothing and cardigans for evening.
Black Sea, Central and Eastern Anatolia: Summer wear, warmer clothing should be taken for cool evenings at high altitudes.
Comfortable shoes are necessary for visiting archaeological and historical sites.
Sun hats and sunglasses are advisable in the summer.
Headscarves should be brought by women for visiting mosques.

Government of Turkey

Country name conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Türkiye
Government type in Turkey Republican parliamentary democracy
Capital of Turkey Ankara
Administrative divisions in Turkey 81 provinces (iller, singular - il): Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Date of Foundation of Turkey 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holidays in Turkey Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Turkish Constitution 7 November 1982
Turkish Legal system civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights
Suffrage in Turkey 18 years of age; universal
Turkish Executive branch chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%
note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Turkish Legislative branch unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Türkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held in 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister, on 14 March 2003
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, Anavatan 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and other; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2005 - AKP 357, CHP 154, ANAVATAN 22, DYP 4, SHP 4, HYP 1, independents 4, vacant 4
Turkish Judicial branch Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties in Turkey Anavatan Partisi (once was Motherland Party) or ANAVATAN [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Recai KUTAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Emin SIRIN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasr Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004
Pressure groups in Turkey Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International Participation of Turkey AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Turkish Flag description red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

Turkish Economy

Overview of Turkish Economy Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low. Despite the strong economic gains in 2002-05, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high debt. The public sector fiscal deficit exceeds 6% of GDP - due in large part to high interest payments, which accounted for about 37% of central government spending in 2004. Prior to 2005, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey averaged less than $1 billion annually, but further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost FDI. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion.
Turkish GDP (purchasing power parity) $552.7 billion (2005 est.)
Turkish GDP (official exchange rate) $336.4 billion (2005 est.)
Turkish GDP - real growth rate 5.1% (2005 est.)
Turkish GDP - per capita (PPP) $7,900 (2005 est.)
Turkish GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 58.5% (2005 est.)
Turkish Population below poverty line 20% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 30.7% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 42 (2003)
Turkish Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.7% (2005 est.)
Turkish Labor force 24.7 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 35.9%, industry 22.8%, services 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)
Unemployment rate 10% plus underemployment of 4% (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $93.58 billion
expenditures: $115.3 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Industries in Turkey textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Turkish Industrial production growth rate 5.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production in Turkey 133.6 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption in Turkey 140.3 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 600 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 1.2 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production of Turkey 50,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption 715,100 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports of Turkey 46,110 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports 616,500 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves in Turkey 288.4 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production in Turkey 560 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption of Turkey 22.6 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports 15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves 8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Turkish Agriculture - products tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Exports $72.49 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners Germany 13.9%, UK 8.8%, US 7.7%, Italy 7.3%, France 5.8%, Spain 4.2% (2004)
Imports $101.2 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners Germany 12.9%, Russia 9.3%, Italy 7.1%, France 6.4%, US 4.8%, China 4.6%, UK 4.4% (2004)
Debt - external $161.8 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $635.8 million (2002)
Currency (code) Turkish lira (YTL); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005
Exchange rates Turkish liras per US dollar - 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003), 1.5072 (2002), 1.2256 (2001)
note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish Lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish Lira (YTL) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish Lira
Fiscal year calendar year
Investment (gross fixed) 19.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Public debt 67.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
Current account balance $-22 billion (2005 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $46.5 billion (2005 est.)

Communications in Turkey

Fixed lines 19,125,200 (2004)
Mobiles 34,707,500 (2004)
Turkish Telephone system general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Turkish Radio broadcast stations AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Turkish Television broadcast stations 635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code of Turkey .tr
Internet hosts 753,394 (2005)
Internet users in Turkey 5.5 million (2003)

Transportation in Turkey

Turkish Railways total: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (2,122 km electrified) (2004)
Turkish Roadways total: 354,421 km
paved: 147,404 km (including 1,886 km of expressways)
unpaved: 207,017 km (2003)
Turkish Waterways 1,200 km (2005)
Turkish Pipelines gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2004)
Turkish Ports and terminals Aliaga, Ambarli, Eregli, Haydarpasa, Istanbul, Kocaeli (Izmit), Skhira, Toros
Merchant marine total: 538 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,745,132 GRT/7,261,125 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 109, cargo 235, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 26, liquefied gas 5, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 51, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 23, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 10 (Cyprus 3, Italy 3, South Korea 1, Monaco 1, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 344 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 5, The Bahamas 10, Belize 8, Cambodia 17, Comoros 10, Dominica 1, France 1, Georgia 24, Honduras 1, Isle of Man 3, North Korea 4, Liberia 2, Libya 2, Malta 101, Marshall Islands 24, Netherlands Antilles 8, Panama 31, Russia 54, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 23, Slovakia 8, UK 1, unknown 3) (2005)
Airports in Turkey 120 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways total: 88
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 4 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 20 (2005)
Heliports 16 (2005)

Turkish Military

Military branches Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force
Military service age and obligation 20 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service males age 20-49: 16,756,323 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service males age 20-49: 13,905,901 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually males: 679,734 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $12.155 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.3% (2003)
Military - note in the early 1990s, the Turkish Land Force was a large but badly equipped infantry force; there were 14 infantry divisions, but only one was mechanized, and out of 16 infantry brigades, only six were mechanized; the overhaul that has taken place since has produced highly mobile forces with greatly enhanced firepower in accordance with NATO's new strategic concept (2005)

Transnational Issues of Turkey

Disputes - international complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Illicit drugs key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
Refugees and internally displaced persons IDPs: 350,000-1,000,000
Table 1: Distribution of 2005 GNP & GNP PP ( Gross National Product Per Person)

GNP (Billion $)

PP-GNP (1K $)



















































The Netherlands





















What does it cost to live in Turkey?



Related Links

  • Washington Embassy of the Republic of Turkey
  • All Population Centers of Turkey (Turkish Destinations)
  • City Populations (United Nations)
  • Country Profile of Turkey (US Library of Congress)
  • Data Profile of Turkey (World Bank)
  • Encyclopedia article about TUrkey
  • Human Rights Report (biased and politically motivated within a strategic political context but worth to know)
  • More Links about Turkey (Open Directory)
  • More Links about Turkey (Yahoo)
  • News Headlines about Turkey
  • Turkish State Institute of Statistics
  • Turkey Mundi Index
  • Turkey Revisited Guardian
  • Turks: A journey of 1000 years-Royal Academy of Arts
  • Anatolia and the Caucasus-The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Photo Gallery of Turkey-Dick Osseman









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