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Explore Anatolia (Turkey-Türkiye-Asia Minor): The Heartland of Civilisations

   
   
Geographical Map of Turkey
   
   
   
"The gateway between Europe and Asia...Turkey"
"A country situated at the heart of the oldest continents of earth...Turkey"
"The crossroads of many important routes since centuries...Turkey"
"A bridge between ages, nations and civilizations...Turkey"
   
   
   

 

Orientation and Introduction to the Ancient World - Prof. Kenneth Harl.

   
   
   
   
   

The Ancient Near East

   
   

The ancient Near East refers to early civilizations in a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Persia (modern Iran), Anatolia (modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan), and Ancient Egypt, from the beginnings of Sumer in the 6th millennium BC until the region's conquest by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.The ancient Near East is considered the cradle of civilization. It was the first to practice intensive year-round agriculture; it produced the first writing system, invented the potter's wheel and then the vehicular- and mill wheels, created the first centralized governments, law codes and empires, as well as introducing social stratification, slavery and organized warfare, and it laid the foundation for the fields of mathematics, medicine and astronomy.

   
   

The ancient Near East refers to early civilizations in a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Persia (modern Iran), Anatolia (modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan), and Ancient Egypt, from the beginnings of Sumer in the 6th millennium BC until the region's conquest by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.

The ancient Near East is considered the cradle of civilization. It was the first to practice intensive year-round agriculture; it produced the first writing system, invented the potter's wheel and then the vehicular- and mill wheels, created the first centralized governments, law codes and empires, as well as introducing social stratification, slavery and organized warfare, and it laid the foundation for the fields of mathematics, medicine and astronomy.

   
   

Ancient Near East, 1300 BC Hitit Empire Hitit Empire

   
   

Anatolia (Turkey-Türkiye-Asia Minor), Mesopotamia and Ancient Middle East

   
   

Mesopotamia is "between" (or in the middle of, mesos) the "rivers" (potamoi). Those are the Tigris and the Euphrates. These rivers arise near each other in the mountains of Anatolia. The Tigris, to the east, runs more or less straight down to the Persian Gulf. The Euphrates, to the west, wanders off further to the west for a while. The large plain between the two rivers in the north is the jazîra, the "island," or the nahrain, the "two rivers," in Arabic. This area is now divided between Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. The historic kingdom actually based in the jazîra was Mitanni. Just below midcourse, the rivers approach each other. In this area one finds the historic cities of Babylon, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, and Baghdad, progressing roughly from south to north. Babylon was on the Euphrates, the later cities all on the Tigris. Below these cities, the rivers spread out again before merging into the Shatt-al-Arab, which flows into the Gulf. This southern area between the rivers, lying entirely in modern Iraq, constituted ancient Sumeria. Akkad, which conquered Sumeria under Sargon, straddled the rivers north and south of their middle course convergence. Sumer and Akkad together become Babylonia. The Tigris valley north of this becomes the heartland of Assyria. Assyria frequently sought to expand across the jazîra and eventually conquered not only Babylonia but the Levant, the mountains to the north and east of Assyria, and, briefly, even distant Egypt. The Persian Empire finally encompased all this area, including the Iranian plateau and central Asia. We work out here ancient Mesopotamia down to Alexander the Great, and the culturally related nearby states in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Levant, and Iran. 

   
   

Map of Ancient Mesapotamia

   
   

Ancient Anatolian Peoples, Cultures, Civilisations Index

   
   
   
   

7 Wonders of the World

1. The Pyramids

Egyptian

2. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Neo-Babylonian

3. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Greek

4. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Anatolian

5. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Anatolian

6. The Colossus of Rhodes

Greek

7. The Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria

Hellenistic

   
   

Related Links and Sources on Ancient Civilizations

   
   
   
   

TransAnatolie Tour
A - Group License N°4938 - The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism
 
 
   
   
Ottoman Empire, Acquisitions 1683

Seljuk Empire at its greatest extent in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doğu-Batı Medeniyetinin, 2150 m. Yükseklikte muhteşem bir piramitteki kesişme noktası, Dünyanın sekizinci harikası Nemrut.

Bizans İmparatorluğu (476-1400)

Roma İmparatorluğu'nun en geniş sınırları.

Alexander's empire and his route - Büyük İskender'in kurduğu imparatorluk

I. Darius (MÖ 522 - MÖ 486) yönetimi altında Ahameniş İmparatorluğunun en geniş sınırları

MÖ 6. yy'da Croesus yönetimindeki son egemenlik döneminde Lidya İmparatorluğu'nun haritası. (M.Ö. 7.yy kırmızı sınır)

Friglerin ilk yerleşim yerini ve genişlediği alanı gösteren Anadolu haritası.

Herodot'a göre, Med İmparatorluğu'nun Kral Astyages hükümdarlığındaki toprakları.

II. Sarduri egemenliğinde, İÖ 743'te Urartu İmparatorluğu'nun en geniş sınırları.

M. Ö. 1400 yılında Mitanni Krallığının sınırlarının en geniş olduğu dönemdeki haritası.

Overview map in the 15th century BC

Map of the Hittite Empire at its greatest extent under Suppiluliuma I (c.1350–1322) and Mursili II (c.1321–1295).

En geniş sınırlarıyla Hititler.

Luvilerin Anadolu’daki yerleşim alanları.

Bronz Çağında Hurriler.

Babil İmparatorluğu

Akkad İmparatorluğu

Yümüktepe tumulus in Mersin, Turkey

Statuettes of women from Hacilar, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey Collection: Museum of Prehistory and Early History Berlin.

Area of the fertile crescent, circa 7500 BC, with main sites. Aşıklı Höyük, near Çatalhöyük, was one of the foremost sites of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period. The area of Mesopotamia proper was not yet settled by humans.

Çatalhöyük Ana Tanrıça heykelciği

Türkiye: 'Dünyanın merkezi...'

 

 

Turkey

Turquie

Türkei

Turkije

Türkiye

 

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Last modified: 2022-11-16
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