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Ionians

 

 

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Ionia

 

Ionians one of the great pan-Hellenic tribal groups. They lived initially in southwestern Thessaly, but at a very early date migrated south. Some of them remained in southwestern Thessaly and others moved to west Locris, Achaea and Pisa. Afterwards they colonized Attica and Asia Minor. They also extensively settled the Cyclades, Euboea, Corinth, Megara, Epidaurus, and by the end of the Mycenean era they were in Attica, Megaris, Epidaurus, Troezin, Kynourua and Achaea. Defeated by the Achaeans, Minyes, Phlegyes and Lapithes, they remained largely in Attica, some of the islands, and most especially in western Asia Minor, which became known as "Ionia". They are to a large extent responsible for Greek literature, philosophy, and much Hellenic art (the Ionian dialect is the foundation upon which standard Classic Greek developed, which in turn gave birth to "Koine" (Common speech - the language of most of the New Testament), Byzantine dialects, and ultimately modern Greek. In acquiescing to Persian hegemony in Asia Minor during the 6th and 5th centuries, they earned the scornful contempt of the Peloponessian Dorians, who regarded Ionians as weak, compliant, mendacious, and very likely treasonous. It is this tension between the two groups which is at the heart of much of Greek historical development.

  • Ion
  • Partitioned into four sub-tribes: Geleondes, Oplites, Aegikoreis and Argadeis

 

 

 

Ionians

The Ionians were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans. The Ionian dialect was one of the three major linguistic divisions of the Hellenic world, together with the Dorian and Aeolian dialects.

When referring to populations, “Ionian” defines several groups in Classical Greece. In its narrowest sense, the term referred to the region of Ionia in Asia Minor. In a broader sense, it could be used to describe all speakers of the Ionic dialect, which in addition to those in Ionia proper also included the Greek populations of Euboea, the Cyclades, and many cities founded by Ionian colonists. Finally, in the broadest sense it could be used to describe all those who spoke languages of the East Greek group, which included Attic.

The foundation myth which was current in the Classical period suggested that the Ionians were named after Ion, son of Xuthus, who lived in the north Peloponnesian region of Aigialeia. When the Dorians invaded the Peloponnese they expelled the Achaeans from the Argolid and Lacedaemonia. The displaced Achaeans moved into Aigialeia (thereafter known as Achaea), in turn expelling the Ionians from Aigialeia. The Ionians moved to Attica and mingled with the local population of Attica, and many later emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor founding the historical region of Ionia.

Unlike the austere and militaristic Dorians, the Ionians are renowned for their love of philosophy, art, democracy, and pleasure – Ionian traits that were most famously expressed by the Athenians.
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İyon Uygarlığı

İyon Uygarlığı Yunanlar tarafından milattan önce 1200'de Batı Anadolu'da kurulan bir medeniyettir. Batı Anadolu'da kabaca Gediz Nehrinden, Küçük Menderes Nehir'ine kadarki kıyı bölgesine kurmuş ve İyonya adını vermişlerdir.

Şehir devletleri halinde yaşamışlardır. 12 şehir devletinden oluşan bir birlik oluşturmuşlardır. Bu şehirler sırasıyla Miletos, Myos, Priene, Efes, Kolophon, Lebedos, Teos, Erithrai, Klazomenai, Phokia Samos ve Khios'dur. Smyra aslında Aiol birliğinde iken daha sonradan iyonlaşmıştır. Halikarnos ise Dor birliğinden atılınca, İyon birliğine girmiştir.

Ticaret yollarının bitiş noktasında bulunmaları, tarım ve deniz ticareti sayesinde zenginleş­meleri sonucunda kültürel ve bilim yönüyle Anadolu medeniyetlerinin en gelişmişini oluştur­muşlardır. Yerleşme amacıyla özellikle Marmara ve Karadeniz kıyılarından pek çok koloni kurmuşlardır. Şehir devletleri halinde yaşamaları, bilim insanlarının yetişmesine uygun özgür düşünce or­tamına zemin hazırlamıştır. Bazı ünlü İyonyalılar; tıpta Hipokrat, tarihte Herodot, felsefe'de Diyojen, matematikte Pisagor, Thales gibi bilim insanları yetişmiştir.

İnsan şeklinde düşündükleri çok tanrılı din anlayışı vardır. Özellikle Efes kentinde bir ana tanrıça figürü olan Artemis önemli tanrıçalardadır.

Persler tarafından İyonyalılar'a son verilmiştir. Perslere teslim olan Miletos hariç diğer birçok İyon kenti yağmalanmıştır. Atina'nın desteklediği bazı isyan girişimleri olduysa da bu girişimler sonuçsuz kalmıştır.

Mimaride İyon nizamını geliştirmişlerdir (Örnek, Efes harabeleri, Artemis Tapınağı).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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